How Bath Towel Is Made – Materials, Production Process, Making, Historical Past, Used, Composition, Product, Business

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Bath towels are woven items of fabric both cotton or cotton-polyester which might be used to absorb moisture on the physique after bathing. Bath towels are often offered in a set with face towels and wash cloths and are at all times the biggest of the three towels. Bath towels are typically woven with a loop or pile that’s delicate and absorbent and is thus used to wick the water away from the body. Particular looms called dobby looms are used to make this cotton pile.

Bath towels are generally of a single color however could also be decorated with machine-sewn embroidery, woven in fancy jacquard patterns (pre-determined pc program pushed designs) and even printed in stripes. Since towels are uncovered to a lot water and are washed on scorching-water wash settings more regularly than different textiles, printed towels may not retain their pattern very long. Most towels have a two selvage edges or completed woven edges along the sides and are hemmed (reduce and sewn down) at the top and backside. Some toweling manufacturers produce the yarn used for the toweling, weave the towels, dye them, minimize and sew hems, and prepared them for distribution. Others purchase the yarn already spun from different wholesalers and solely weave the toweling.


Till the early nineteenth century, when the textile industry mechanized, bath toweling could possibly be comparatively expensive to purchase or time-consuming to create. There is some query how important these sanitary linens were for the common particular person-in any case, bathing was not almost as universally widespread 200 years ago as it’s at this time! Most 9-teenth century toweling that survives is, certainly, toweling in all probability used behind or on top of the washstand, the piece of furnishings that held the wash basin and pitcher with water in the times before indoor plumbing. Much of this toweling was hand-woven, plain-woven natural linen. Fancy ladies’ magazines and mail order catalogs feature fancier jacquard-woven coloured linen patterns (significantly crimson and white) however these were extra likely to be hand and face cloths. It wasn’t till the 1890s that the extra smooth and absorbent terry cloth replaced the plain linen toweling.

Because the cotton business mechanized in this nation, toweling materials could be purchased by the yard as well as in completed items. By the 1890s, an American home-spouse might go to the overall store or order through the mail both woven, sewn, and hemmed Turkish toweling (terry cloth) or may purchase terry cloth by the ‘y’ard, minimize it to the suitable bath golf towel dimension her family preferred, and hem it herself. Quite a lot of toweling was accessible-diaper weaves, huck-abacks, “crash” toweling-primarily in cotton as linen was not commercially woven on this nation in nice amount by the 1890s. Weaving factories began mass manufacturing of terry cloth towels by the tip of the 9-teenth century and have been producing them in related style ever since.

Raw Supplies

Raw supplies embrace cotton or cotton and polyester, depending on the composition of the towel in manufacturing. If you liked this information and you would such as to receive more facts relating to microfiber beach towel review kindly check out our own web site. Some towel factories buy the primary uncooked material, cotton, in 500 lb (227 kg) bales and spin them with synthetics in an effort to get the type of yarn they want for manufacturing. Nevertheless, some factories purchase the yarn from a supplier. These yarn spools of cotton-polyester mix yarn is purchased in huge quantities in 7.5 lb (3.Four kg) spools of yarn. A single spool of yarn unravels to 66,000 yd (60,324 m) of thread.

Yarn have to be coated or sized to ensure that it to be woven more easily. One such industry coating accommodates PVA starch, urea, and wax. Bleaches are usually used to whiten a towel earlier than dyeing it (if it is to be dyed). Again, these bleaches fluctuate relying on the manufacturer, however may embody as many as 10 components (a few of them proprietary) together with hydrogen peroxide, a caustic defoamer, or if the towel is to stay white, an optical brightener to make the white look brighter. Artificial or chemical dyes, of advanced composition, which make towels both colorfast and shiny, could even be used.


Most towels will not be specifically designed in complicated patterns. The overwhelming majority is simple terry towels woven on dobby looms with loop piles, sewn edges at prime and backside. Sizes range as do colors depending on the order. Increasingly, white or inventory towels are despatched to wholesalers or others to decorate with laptop-pushed embroidery or decorate with applique fabric or decoration. This occurs in a different location and is commonly executed by another company.

The Manufacturing



– 1 As mentioned above, some factories spin their own yarn for bath towels. If this is finished at the factory, the producer receives huge 500 lb (227 kg) bales of either excessive or “middling grade” (of medium quality) cotton for conversion into yarn (quality depends on the manufacturer and quality of the towel in manufacturing). These bales are damaged open by an automatic Uniflock machine that nips a bit off the highest of each bale, opens it up after which lays it down. The Uniflock opening machine blends the cotton fibers collectively by repeatedly beating it so impurities fall out or are filtered out (these bales contain many impurities within the uncooked cotton). The extra pure fibers are blown by way of tubes to a mixing unit the place the cotton is blended together before they’re spun. Greater high quality towels use cotton with fibers which are blended collectively 3 times earlier than spinning. In some factories, the cotton is blended with polyester during this blending process.

– 2 The mixed fibers are then blown through tubes to carding machines where revolving cylinders with wire teeth are used to straighten the fibers and continue to remove impurities earlier than spinning. The cotton fibers, whereas not but yarn, are shaping up into parallel fibers in preparation for spinning.

– 3 These parallel fibers are then condensed right into a sliver-a twisted rope of cotton fibers. These slivers are sent into another machine during which they are blended again and sent between different rollers for straightening. The ultimate goal is long, straight, parallel fibers as a result of they produce stronger yarns. (Stronger yarns require less twisting which also produces sturdy yarns but makes them much less comfortable and absorbent.) The fibers are wound on a large roll and sent on a cart and fed into the combing machine.

– Four Fibers are combed here, further straightening the fibers with a finer set of wire teeth than used on the carding machine. Combing removes the shorter fibers, that are coarser and woollier, leaving the finer, longer, silkier cotton fibers for spinning into yarn. Once combed, the fibers are formed right into a twisted rope sliver once more.

– 5 The slivers travel to roving machines where the fibers are further twisted and straightened and formed into rovings. The roving body also slightly twists the fibers. The result is a long roving of cotton, which is then wound onto bobbins in the final step before spinning.

– 6 Now the roving is prepared for spinning. The bobbin is spun on a ring-spinning machine, which mechanically attracts out or pulls the cotton roving out right into a single strand. The fibers primarily catch each other to kind one steady thread and twists the thread barely as it’s pulled or Once the toweling is made, it is wound on an off-loom take-up reel. It’s then transported to bleaching as large rolls of fabric and put into a water bath with bleaching chemicals resembling hydrogen peroxide, caustic defoamers, and different proprietary elements. All toweling should be dyed pure white earlier than it’s dyed any color.

spun. As soon as the yarn is spun, it’s mechanically wound on massive wheels that resemble rounds of cheese when filled with thread.


– 7 Warp is longitudinal threads in a piece of woven materials that are tightly stretched or warped on a beam. Latitudinal threads known as weft or filler are passed below and over the warp to type the fabric. The large spools of just-spun cotton are able to be warped or wound on a beam that will likely be inserted into the loom for weaving. If the yarn is purchased, the 7.5 lb (3.Four kg) spools are readied for microfiber beach towel towel warping. A warping beam is then warped by which threads are anchored and wrapped to a large beam in lots of of parallel rows. Different towel widths require totally different numbers of warp threads.- Eight These big beams, stuffed with wrapped warp threads, are positioned into a rack that holds as much as 12 beams and sized in preparation for weaving. The threads should be sized or stiffened to make the piece simpler to weave. PVA starch, urea, and wax are rolled onto and pressed into the yarn. The threads are then run over drying cans-Teflon-coated cans with steam heat emanating from with-in. This helps to dry the warp threads rapidly. (1,000 warp ends are pulled over nine cans to dry.) These beams, with coated threads, at the moment are sent to the looms.


– 9 The beams are picked up by a pallet jack or hydraulic raise truck and transported to looms. These looms fluctuate in width but may be as slender as eighty five in (216 cm) or as wide as 153 in (389 cm). (Not surprisingly, the wider the loom, microfiber beach towel review the slower the weaving as it takes longer for weft threads to cross the warp.) The beams are lifted onto the looms mechanically with a warp jack, which can bear the burden and dimension of the beam.- 10 Towels are woven on dobby looms, which means every loom has two units or warp and thus two warp beams-one warp is named the bottom warp and kinds the body of the towel and the opposite is called the pile warp and it produces the terry pile or loop. Every set of warp threads is carefully fed via a set of metal eyes and is attached to a harness. (Harnesses are separate, parallel frames that may change in their vertical relationships to one another.) These harnesses mechanically increase and decrease these warp threads so that the weft or filler could be handed between them. The intersection of the warp and weft is woven fabric. The filler yarn is programmed so that it’s loosely laid into the woven fabric. When this loose filler is crushed or pressed into the fabric, the slack is pushed up turning into a little loop. After being dyed, the towel is hemmed and reduce into standardized sizes.

Shuttles, which carry the filler threads, are really shot throughout these giant looms at top-speeds-these towel-making looms might have 18 shuttles fired across the warp from a firing cylinder. One shuttle follows proper behind the subsequent. As quickly because the one shuttle shoots throughout the warp threads, the shuttle drops down and is transported back to firing cylinder and is shot across again. A typical towel-weaving machine has 350 shuttle insertions in a single minute-almost six shuttles fired throughout each second. Thus, towels are woven very quickly on these giant mechanized dobby looms. In one small towel-making factory, 250 dozen bath towels may be made in one loom in a single week-and there are 50 looms in the manufacturing unit.


– eleven Once the toweling is made (it is one long terry cloth roll and has no beginning or finish), it’s wound on an off-loom take-up reel. It’s then transported to bleaching as big rolls of fabric and put into a water bath with bleaching chemicals reminiscent of hydrogen peroxide, caustic defoamers, and different proprietary components. All toweling should be dyed pure white earlier than it is dyed any colour. The wet toweling laden with chemicals is then subjected to tremendously excessive temperatures. The heat makes the chemicals react, bleaching the towel. The roll is then washed at least as soon as and as many as thrice in a large washer to get all chemicals out of the toweling. The toweling is dried, and if it is to remain white toweling, it is ready to be reduce at the top and backside, lock-stitched sewn, and have a label attached (all of this is completed with one machine).


– 12 Whether it is to be dyed, the large, dried uncut rolls are taken to massive vats of chemical dyes, which have confirmed over time to offer colorfast toweling after extensive residential laundering. After being immersed within the vat, the toweling is eliminated and pressed between two heavy rollers which forces the dye down into the toweling. An intensive steaming sets the coloration. The toweling is once more steam-dried, fluffed within the drying course of, after which the dyed towels are prepared for reducing, hemming, and labeling.

Chopping, folding, and packaging

– 13 Ultimate visual inspection of the minimize and hemmed towels occurs and they are handfolded and conveyed to packaging, the place automatic packaging tools forms a bag around the towels and UPC labels are attached to the baggage. These packaged towels are sent to the inventory room, awaiting transport out of the plant.

High quality Control

Towels are rigorously checked for high quality control all through the production process. If yarn is bought, it’s randomly checked for weight and must be the standard established by the company (lighter yarn spools point out the yarn is thinner than desired and should not make as sturdy toweling). Bleach and dye vats are periodically checked for acceptable chemical constitution.

During the weaving process, some firms go the cloth over a lighted inspection desk. Here the weavers and quality inspectors monitor the towel for weaving imperfections. Barely unevenly woven towels may be straightened out and touched up. But those who can’t may be labeled “seconds” or imperfect or fully rejected by the corporate. As in all elements of the process, visual checks are a key to quality management-all involved in the process perceive minimal requirements and monitor the product at all times.


Probably harmful byproducts are sometimes mixed within the water that’s used to bleach, wash, and dye the towel fabric. Particularly, the bleaching course of contains ingredients (peroxides and other caustics) that can not be discharged untreated into any water supply. Many toweling factories run their own water therapy plants to insure that the water the plant discharges meets minimum requirements for pH, temperature, and so on.

Where to Learn Extra


Montgomery Ward & Co. Spring and Summer time 1895 Catalogue and Buyer’s Information. NY: Dover Publications, Inc. 1969.

Tate, Blair. The Warp: A Weaving Reference. Ashville, NC: Lark Books, 1991.


Fieldcrest Cannon. “The Making of Royal Velvet Towels.” Unpublished script for a video on towel production. Kannapolis, NC, 1998.

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